HTML - Form Control

Types of Form Controls

HTML offers several types of form controls that let users interact with web forms and input data. Let's look at the different types of form controls available.

Input Fields

Input fields are the most common type of form control. They let users enter various types of data, such as text, numbers, and dates. Here are some commonly used input fields:

Input Field Type Description HTML Element
Text Used for entering plain text, such as names, addresses, or comments html <input type="text">
Password Similar to text input fields, but the entered characters are masked for security purposes html <input type="password">
Email Designed specifically for entering email addresses, with basic validation to check for the presence of the "@" symbol and a domain name html <input type="email">
Number Used for entering numeric values, often with built-in validation to restrict the input to numbers only html <input type="number">
Date Allows users to enter dates using a date picker or by manually typing the date html <input type="date">

Checkboxes and Radio Buttons

Checkboxes and radio buttons are used when users need to select one or more options from a group of choices.

Control Type Description HTML Element
Checkbox Allows users to select multiple options from a group, each checkbox operates independently html <input type="checkbox">
Radio Button Used when users need to select a single option from a group of mutually exclusive choices, radio buttons with the same name attribute are grouped together html <input type="radio">


Buttons are used to trigger actions or submit forms.

Button Type Description HTML Element
Submit Used to send form data to the server for processing html <input type="submit"> or html <button type="submit">
Reset Used to reset the form fields to their default values html <input type="reset"> or html <button type="reset">
Button Can be used to create clickable buttons that can perform custom actions using JavaScript html <button>


Textareas are used for entering multi-line text input.

Control Type Description HTML Element
Textarea Provides a larger input area for users to enter multiple lines of text, such as comments or descriptions html <textarea>

The rows and cols attributes can be used to set the initial dimensions of the textarea. The rows attribute sets the number of visible text lines, while the cols attribute sets the average character width. Textareas are resizable by default, allowing users to adjust the size of the input area. The resizing behavior can be controlled using CSS properties like resize.

Labeling Form Controls

Labeling form controls is an important part of creating user-friendly and accessible forms in HTML. Labels give a clear description of the purpose of each form control, making it easier to understand and interact with the form.

Label Elements

The <label> element is used to create a label for a form control. It provides a text description that is associated with a specific form control, such as an input field, checkbox, or radio button. The label text helps you understand the purpose of the form control and what information you should enter or select.

Example: Using the <label> element

<label for="name">Name:</label>
<input type="text" id="name" name="name">

In this example, the <label> element is used to create a label for the text input field. The for attribute of the <label> element is set to the id attribute of the associated form control, establishing a connection between the label and the input field.

Associating Labels with Form Controls

To associate a label with a form control, you can use the for attribute of the <label> element. The value of the for attribute should match the id attribute of the corresponding form control. This creates a logical connection between the label and the form control, allowing you to click on the label to focus on the associated control.

Example: Associating a label with a checkbox

<input type="checkbox" id="terms" name="terms">
<label for="terms">I agree to the terms and conditions</label>

In this case, clicking on the label text "I agree to the terms and conditions" will toggle the state of the associated checkbox.

Importance of Labeling for Accessibility

Labeling form controls is important for accessibility. It helps you understand the purpose and context of each form control when using assistive technologies, such as screen readers. When a label is properly associated with a form control, assistive technologies can convey the label text to you, making it easier to navigate and interact with the form.

In addition to the for attribute, you can also nest the form control inside the <label> element. This implicitly associates the label with the nested control, even without using the for attribute. However, using the for attribute is still considered a best practice for explicit association.

Example: Nesting a radio button inside a label

  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="male"> Male
  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="female"> Female

By properly labeling form controls, you make your forms more accessible and user-friendly for all users, including those relying on assistive technologies.

Grouping Form Controls

When making complex forms with multiple related form controls, it can help to group them for better organization and clarity. HTML provides the <fieldset> and <legend> elements to group and label related form controls.

Fieldset Elements

The <fieldset> element groups together related form controls within a form. It creates a visual and logical grouping of form controls, making the form more structured and easier to understand. The <fieldset> element contains the grouped controls and can also include a caption or label for the group using the <legend> element.

Example: Contact Information

    <legend>Contact Information</legend>
    <label for="name">Name:</label>
    <input type="text" id="name" name="name"><br>
    <label for="email">Email:</label>
    <input type="email" id="email" name="email"><br>
    <label for="phone">Phone:</label>
    <input type="tel" id="phone" name="phone">

Legend Elements

The <legend> element provides a caption or label for a <fieldset>. It appears as a heading within the fieldset and describes the grouped form controls. The <legend> element should be the first child of the <fieldset> element.

Example: Shipping Address

  <legend>Shipping Address</legend>
  <label for="address">Address:</label>
  <input type="text" id="address" name="address"><br>
  <label for="city">City:</label>
  <input type="text" id="city" name="city"><br>
  <label for="zip">ZIP Code:</label>
  <input type="text" id="zip" name="zip">

Form Control Attributes

HTML provides several attributes that can be used to add functionality and behavior to form controls. These attributes let you set additional properties and constraints for form controls, improving the user experience and data validation. Let's look at some commonly used form control attributes.

Required Attribute

The required attribute is used to indicate that a form control must be filled out before the form can be submitted. When a form control has the required attribute, the browser will stop the form from being submitted if the control is left empty or does not meet the specified validation criteria.

Example: Required attribute

<label for="name">Name:</label>
<input type="text" id="name" name="name" required>

In this example, the text input field for the name is marked as required. If you try to submit the form without entering a value in this field, the browser will show an error message and stop form submission until a value is provided.

Disabled Attribute

The disabled attribute is used to disable a form control, making it non-interactive and non-editable. Disabled form controls are usually grayed out and cannot be focused, clicked, or changed by you.

Example: Disabled attribute

<label for="username">Username:</label>
<input type="text" id="username" name="username" disabled>

In this case, the text input field for the username is disabled. You will not be able to interact with or change the value of this field.

Disabled form controls are not submitted as part of the form data when the form is submitted. They are skipped during form processing.

Readonly Attribute

The readonly attribute is used to make a form control read-only, meaning you can view its value but cannot change it. Read-only form controls are still focusable and can be included in form submission.

Example: Readonly attribute

<label for="email">Email:</label>
<input type="email" id="email" name="email" value="" readonly>

In this example, the email input field is marked as read-only. You can see the pre-filled value but cannot edit it.

Read-only form controls are useful when you want to show pre-filled or calculated values that should not be changed by you.

Placeholder Attribute

The placeholder attribute is used to provide a hint or example text inside a form control when it is empty. The placeholder text disappears when you start typing or the form control receives focus.

Example: Placeholder attribute

<label for="search">Search:</label>
<input type="text" id="search" name="search" placeholder="Enter search term...">

In this case, the text input field for search has a placeholder text of "Enter search term...". This text is shown inside the input field when it is empty, providing a visual cue to you about the expected input.

Placeholders should be used as a supplementary hint and should not replace proper labeling of form controls. They are helpful for providing additional guidance or examples, but should not be relied upon as the only way of conveying the purpose of a form control.

Form Validation

Form validation checks user input to make sure it follows the expected format, meets criteria, and is free from errors or malicious data. It is an important part of web form design and helps maintain data integrity and security. HTML provides built-in form validation features that can check user input on the client side before submitting the form to the server.

Client-side validation happens in the user's browser. It uses HTML form validation attributes and JavaScript to check the form data before it is sent to the server. Client-side validation provides instant feedback to users about any errors or issues with their input, allowing them to correct the data before submitting the form. This improves user experience and reduces the load on the server by catching common errors early.

However, client-side validation is not enough on its own. It can be bypassed or manipulated by users. Server-side validation is also necessary to make sure the submitted data is valid and secure. Server-side validation happens on the server after the form is submitted. It double-checks the form data and performs more thorough validation, such as checking against a database or applying complex business rules.

HTML offers several validation attributes that can be added to form controls to specify validation rules:

Attribute Description
required Specifies that a form control must be filled out before the form can be submitted
pattern Specifies a regular expression pattern that the form control's value must match
min and max Specifies the minimum and maximum values for numeric form controls
minlength and maxlength Specifies the minimum and maximum length of the input value
step Specifies the legal number intervals for numeric form controls

Example: Using validation attributes

<label for="username">Username:</label>
<input type="text" id="username" name="username" required minlength="4" maxlength="20">

<label for="email">Email:</label>
<input type="email" id="email" name="email" required>

<label for="age">Age:</label>
<input type="number" id="age" name="age" min="18" max="120">

The username input field is required and must have a length between 4 and 20 characters. The email input field is required and must be a valid email address. The age input field must be a number between 18 and 120.

When a form is submitted, the browser checks the form controls against the specified validation rules. If any of the rules are not followed, the browser shows an error message and stops the form submission. Users can then correct their input and resubmit the form.

In addition to the built-in HTML validation attributes, you can also use JavaScript to perform more complex validation or custom error handling. JavaScript can access form controls, check their values, and display custom error messages or perform additional validation logic.

Remember, while client-side validation improves user experience and catches common errors, it should always be combined with server-side validation to ensure the security and integrity of the submitted data.

Styling Form Controls

Form controls can be styled using CSS to improve their look and match your website's design. CSS lets you change the look of form controls to make them visually appealing and consistent with your website's branding. Here are some ways to style form controls using CSS.

Applying CSS to Form Controls

To apply CSS styles to form controls, you can use CSS selectors to target specific form elements. You can select form controls based on their type, class, ID, or other attributes. Here are some examples of CSS selectors for form controls:

Example: CSS selectors for form controls

/* Selecting all input elements */
input {
  /* CSS styles */

/* Selecting a specific input type */
input[type="text"] {
  /* CSS styles */

/* Selecting a form control with a specific class */
.form-control {
  /* CSS styles */

/* Selecting a form control with a specific ID */
#username {
  /* CSS styles */

Once you have selected the form controls, you can apply various CSS properties to style them. Some common CSS properties used for form control styling include:

CSS Property Description
width and height Set the size of the form control
padding Add space within the form control
border Set the border style, width, and color
background-color Set the background color of the form control
color Set the text color inside the form control
font-family and font-size Set the font family and size for the form control text

Example: Styling input elements

input[type="text"] {
  width: 200px;
  padding: 10px;
  border: 1px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  font-size: 16px;

Pseudo-classes for Form Control States

CSS provides pseudo-classes that let you style form controls based on their states. Pseudo-classes are keywords added to selectors to specify a special state of an element. Some commonly used pseudo-classes for form controls are:

Pseudo-class Description
:focus Applies styles when the form control has focus (is being interacted with)
:valid Applies styles when the form control's value is valid according to its validation rules
:invalid Applies styles when the form control's value is invalid according to its validation rules
:disabled Applies styles when the form control is disabled
:read-only Applies styles when the form control is read-only

Example: Pseudo-classes for form controls

input[type="text"]:focus {
  outline: none;
  border-color: blue;

input[type="email"]:valid {
  border-color: green;

input[type="number"]:invalid {
  border-color: red;

input[type="text"]:disabled {
  background-color: #eee;
  cursor: not-allowed;

Customizing Form Control Appearance

CSS lets you change the look of form controls beyond the default browser styles. You can use CSS properties and techniques to create visually appealing and unique form controls that match your website's design.

Example: Custom checkbox design

input[type="checkbox"] {
  appearance: none;
  width: 20px;
  height: 20px;
  border: 2px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  background-color: #fff;
  transition: background-color 0.3s;

input[type="checkbox"]:checked {
  background-color: #007bff;
  border-color: #007bff;
select {
  width: 200px;
  padding: 10px;
  border: 1px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  background-color: #fff;
  appearance: none;
  background-image: url("arrow-down.svg");
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  background-position: right 10px center;

select:focus {
  outline: none;
  border-color: blue;